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ENGLISH - VERBAL TEST
Directions for questions 1 to 5 : Read the passage given below carefully and then answer the questions which are based on what is stated or implied in the passage.
Until anthrax spores started spreading through the mail, few people gave much thought to the minuscule particles that drift almost invisibly in the atmosphere, infiltrate buildings and plunge deep into lungs. Not so far environmental scientists, who have spent decades studying the physics and physiology of particles much like those in the most dangerous forms of biological weaponry.
From the coal dust that causes black lung disease to the bacteria laden droplets that spread Legionnaires’ disease to second-hand cigarette smoke and plain old air pollution, particles from about 0.05 microns to 10 or 20 microns in size have long been at the focus of scientists’ attention. A micron is a millionth of a metre, or an inch divided into 25,400 parts.
These tiny particles crop up in environmental science and germ weaponry virtually identical reasons. Once released, particles of that size can stay aloft almost indefinitely and seep into poorly sealed buildings, greatly increasing the chances of the particles being inhaled by people.
What’s more the peculiar microscopic particles makes it certain that some of them, within a highly specific range of size, will be able to slip past protective nose hairs, avoid stickly bronchial walls and be deposited in the deepest reaches of the lungs, where great damage can be done.
Once the particle lands, its exact composition-whether it is harmless, chemically toxic or biologically infectious – comes into play. Much is known about the process too, especially through studies of Legionnaires’, tuberculosis and other bacterial diseases that are transmitted through the air on particles that are, not coincidentally, a few microns in size. The existence of this knowledge, freely available in unclassified literature, is doubly-edged, say scientists. It may sap germ warfare of some of its mysteriousness, but it also shows how widely available the information needed to design the weaponry is.
For many environmental scientists, who have been warning that pollution particles of that size pose a special danger to human health if they come indoors, the bioterrorism threat is one more reason to improve the quality of indoor air with powerful filters and other methods.
1. Which of the following is not true about anthrax spores?
a] They can be spread through letters. b] They are not visible.
c] They can enter buildings. d] They can enter the respiratory system.
2. What is the function of nose hairs, according to the passage?
a] They protect the lungs from undesirable particles.
b] They are an important tool in the biological arsenal.
c] They have chemical toxins flow out of the nose.
d] They help the environment in remaining clean.
3. What is the meaning of “bronchial” as used in the passage?
a] of the windpipe b] of the lungs c] of the oesophagus d] of the stomach
4. Who among the following have been concerned about the microscopic organisms so far?
a] People across the world b] Environmental scientists
c] Bio-terrorists d] All of the above
5. According to the author, the knowledge about microscopic organism
a] is common.
b] is a boon as it unravels the mystery of germ warfare.
c] comes handy for those who design biological weaponry.
d] is a boon as well as a bane.
a] Carefree b] Civilized c] Uncivilized d] Dull
a] Superior b] Expert c] Active d] Old
a] Mild b] False c] Blunt d] Roaring
a] Spiritual b] Injustice c] Cruel d] Generous
a] Slavery b] Pleasure c] Plenty d] Old
Directions for questions 11 to 15 : Out of the given alternatives, choose the correct words which very closely fit each definition. Put a tick against the correct word:
11. The teacher made him _______ the exercise.
a] repeating b] repeats c] repeated d] repeat
12. Two boys who were _______ for a bus were knocked down by a truck.
a] were waited b] waited c] waiting d] were waiting
13. I _______ your proposal and regret, I cannot accept them.
a] have studied b] study c] studying d] studied
14. I trust that you will _______ your promise.
a] keep b] retain c] let d] agree
15. I am supposed to _______ here.
a] stopped b] stop c] stopping d] stopping
Directions for questions 16 to 20: Each sentence has four underlined words or phrases marked (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e). Choose the one word or phrase which is incorrect and must be changed to make the sentence correct. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the answer you have chosen.
16. He as well as they that the whole character of the twentieth century
should be very different from that of the nineteenth No error
c d e
17. He died fighting For his motherland
and it was his mother’s consolation No error
c d e
18. It is elemental that the greater the development of man
greater the problems he has to concern him No error
c d e
19. As long as man wraps his motives and tries to make the worse
appear the better reason there will be no real and lasting progress No error
c d e
20. Whoever that evercame
into personal contact with him could not help liking him No error
c d e